“Why is it that the use of impact factors persists in the face of clear policy guidance that they don’t form part of the assessment? Being able to answer this is central to tackling the problem. I can think of two possible explanations:
* Despite the clarity of the panel working methods, there is a belief that panels will, in fact, use impact factors in their assessment of research outputs.
* Within Universities, senior staff and managers feel that they lack the time or the expertise to come to a judgement on the quality of research outputs, so reach for the easy proxy of journal impact factor.”
— The End of Journal Impact Factors? - Steven Hill
"Containerisation is a testament to the power of process innovation. In the 1950s the world’s ports still did business much as they had for centuries. When ships moored, hordes of longshoremen unloaded “break bulk” cargo crammed into the hold. They then squeezed outbound cargo in as efficiently as possible in a game of maritime Tetris. The process was expensive and slow; most ships spent much more time tied up than plying the seas. And theft was rampant: a dock worker was said to earn “$20 a day and all the Scotch you could carry home."
Shipping containers as the poster child for globalisation.
The Humble Hero - The Economist.
"canal systems, coaching inns and drovers’ ways … infrastructures laid down over time, and often layered over each other"
— E. Shove, ‘The shadowy side of innovation: unmaking and sustainability’ (2012)